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[ شنبه نهم فروردین 1393 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

Strategies for teaching English conversation – EFL teaching tips from the experts at EBC

Strategies for teaching English conversation – teaching tips and ideas

This article, strategies for teaching English conversation, is part of EBC’s strategies for teaching English series.

This article concentrates on a problem that is fairly common among English language learners,  .

Help! – My students don’t want to speak English

Strategies for teaching english conversation – THE PROBLEM

It is a fairly common that at least one person in your class does not want to speak English at all or is very loathe to speak it.

Strategies for teaching english conversation – COMMON REASONS

  • The student’s character.
  • Other students may dominate and/or intimidate.
  • Students are not used to talking freely for reasons of culture and background.
  • Students are afraid of making mistakes and therefore losing face in front of the class.

Strategies for teaching English conversation – SOLUTIONS

  • NEVER try to bully or blackmail quiet students into talking. If you do, you’ll just make things worse. The student will not respond positively and the rest of the class may react negatively towards you as well.

The following strategies for teaching English conversation do work. Their use depends on the general character and disposition of your class. Feel free to experiment with these strategies for teaching English conversation until you find the ones that work best.

All of these strategies for teaching English conversation are about neutralising fear. They are designed to provide a level of comfort that encourages students to start talking or talk more freely. These strategies for teaching English conversation are also designed to give everyone a fair chance at speaking in a controlled manner. This effectively removes the domination and/or intimidation problem mentioned in the second bullet point.

When you use any of these strategies for teaching English conversation ALWAYS make sure that: you have properly prepared all the material you will use, it is appropriate for the class skill level and that you introduce, present and explain what is going to be done and what is expected.

Use pair-work

  • Pair work helps to get quiet students talking.
  • Reluctant students are under less pressure as they are not in the spotlight.
  • Guide them so that they can speak in a controlled way at first. For example: give them a short, simple sentence and then ask them to read it back.
  • Let students write down what they are going to say before they say it. This removes the risk element that a spontaneous response requires.
  • Once these basic skills are acquired you can start asking them simple questions about what they have read. Psychologically they are more likely to respond.

Acting things out and reading aloud

  • Acting out scripted dialogues encourages quiet students.
  • You must work with the students like a drama teacher or acting coach.
  • Explain pronunciation, intonation, emphasis and emotion before you start.
  • If you give effective guidance and get student co-operation, the result will sound good. This means that your students will get a great deal of satisfaction and increase their confidence.

Role-play

  • Quiet students, in general, speak more freely when they are playing a role.
  • They do not have to be themselves.
  • Role-play allows the students to take on a new identity and behave in uncharacteristic ways.
  • Role-play enables the students to connect to a different personality and therefore reduce personal risk.

Use recordings

  • If it’s possible, ask your students to record what they would like to say at home. This gives them the privacy they may need to record and re-record with fear until they are happy with the result.
  • Listen to the recordings they bring to class and TACTFULLY point out any inaccuracies you hear.
  • Each student is given the chance to listen, get feedback from you and repeat.
  • This is a positive, iterative process that encourages self-assessment and motivation.
  • IMPORTANT: Some students may feel inhibited about this. You’ll have to persuade your students to accept the task prior to asking them to do it.

Strategies for teaching english conversation – CONCLUSION

All of these strategies for teaching English conversation are about confidence building. Never forget that speaking has two basic formats:

  • Reading aloud
  • Spontaneous conversation

Reading aloud is a mechanical process. Someone takes information in through their eyes, their brain interprets what they see and their speaking mechanism (tongue, lips, larynx, etc.) creates the sounds to say the words. There is no thinking required regarding what to say because it is written down. Reading aloud is excellent practice because it trains the speaking mechanism to say things in English. It gives you the opportunity to help them with their pronunciation as well.

Spontaneous conversation is a complex process. It is not complex because of the thinking process as, regardless of what the students’ native language is, they can think. The problem is getting them to think, interpret and spontaneously create spoken responses in English. An additional problem is the conversation itself. By definition a conversation is an event held with 2 or more people so listening comes into play as well. Conversing in English is much more complex than reading aloud.

Use the above strategies wisely when teaching English conversation. Start reluctant speakers off with simple reading exercises in a controlled and non-intimidating environment. If you do, you’ll soon have helped build their confidence and they’ll start speaking more freely.

[ شنبه شانزدهم فروردین 1393 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
 Zahra        Beyabani 30.9
Aida          Yafteh 55.75
Fatemeh    Mosavi 85.45
Fatemeh   Sarmasti 61021
Hedyeh      golestani 77057
Mahsa       Amiri 48.48
Mehdi        Gholami 49.09
Mohadeseh   Najafi 84.84
Mohamad    Ezadi 63.03
Negin         Dejveh 19.39
Paria              Pasdar 83.63
Parisa         Siyabani 50.9
Pariya    Hoseini 50.9
Parnia         Zarei 64024
Reza        Amiri 38.78
Saba          dabir 16.36
Sajad         sayadi 70.3
Shokufeh      Falahi 44.84
Zahra         Neyazi 41081
[ دوشنبه نوزدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

Lessons for Life

Three things in life that, once gone, never come back 
         

1. Time
2. Words
3. Opportunity 

  
 
Three things in life that can destroy a person 
         

1. Anger
2. Pride
3. Unforgiveness
      

Three things in life that you should never lose 
         

1. Hope
2. Peace
3. Honesty
         

Three things in life that are most valuable 
         

1. Love
2. Family & Friends
3. Kindness
         

Three things in life that are never certain  
         

1. Fortune
2. Success
3. Dreams
         

Three things that make a person  
         

1. Commitment
2. Sincerity
3. Hard Work

[ یکشنبه یازدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
جه

لطفا به اطلاعيه زير توجه كنيد:

http://s5.picofile.com/file/8114476126/%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA_%D8%B6%D9%85%D9%86_%D8%AE%D8%AF%D9%85%D8%AA.pdf.html


لازم به ذكر است كه سرگروههاي نواحي و مناطق ميتوانند با مشاركت مدارس (مدرسه محور) اين دوره ها را برگزار نمايند. مسئوليت برگزاري دوره ، زمان و مكان و انتخاب مدرس و كليه هزينه ها بر عهده نواحي و مناطق مي باشد.

توجه: اسامي مدرسين منتخب براي تاييد اداره كل به اطلاع آموزش نيروي انساني سازمان رسانده شود.

[ یکشنبه یازدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

بررسی زبان انگلیسی پایه اول دوره ی متوسطه دوم ( 29 / 8 / 1392 )


بمنظور کاهش افت تحصیلی در پایه اول دوره متوسطه دوم، کتاب زبان انگلیسی این پایه مورد نقد و بررسی قرار می گیرد.  انتظار می رود با توجه به برنامه زمان بندی تا آخر آذر ماه 1392 نسبت به ارسال نقد و بررسی انجام یافته  به گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه اقدام لازم را مبذول دارید(در فرمت word ). گروه زبان انگلیسی نیز پس از جمع بندی نقد و بررسی های صورت گرفته، نتایج آن را بصورت گزارش به گروهزبان انگلیسی استان) ارائه خواهد نمود.

[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
برای دانلود ادرس زیر را بر روی نوار مرورگر خود بنویسید.

http://www.uplooder.net/cgi-bin/dl.cgi?key=116eed7043891d58b9e53d39b56e39f1

[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

در اجرای برنامه ی دبیرخانه ی محترم زبان انگلیسی  در محور بهبود شیوه های ارزشیابی(  پیوست شماره  6 ، بند الف )

مسابقه طراحی سئوال استاندارد از کتاب زبان انگلیسی پایه اول دوره متوسطه دوم برگزارمی شود از  کلیه دبیران  درس زبان انگلیسی درخواست می شود سوالاتی را در این خصوص طرح و در تا تاریخ دهم اذر  به گروه اموزشی ناحیه 2 ارسل نمایند  .

[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

 لطفا فایل ضمیمه را در نسخه word  دانلود نمایید.

http://s1.picofile.com/file/7939055157/MelakeArzyaby_1_.rtf.html

نمونه تحلیل براساس حیطه ها                                                                            

http://s3.picofile.com/file/7547400535/nemone.docx.html


[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
http://s3.picofile.com/file/7547400535/nemone.docx.html

دانلود  حیطه های شناختی بررسی سوالات زبان انگلیسی

برای دانلود ادرس بالا را بر روی نوار مرورگر خود بنویسید.

[ چهارشنبه ششم آذر 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

ردیف

 برنامه

    فعالیت

واحد

مقدار

زمان بندی

 

 

 

 

طراحی آموزشی

برگزاری گردهمایی دبيران زبان انگليسي ناحيه 2

جلسه

  1

12/8/92

بازدید از مدارس و کلاس درس و نظارت بر فرایند تدریس و نمرات مستمرهمکاران

کلاس

  30

در طول سال تحصیلی

برگزاری کارگاه تخصصی با محوریت ارتقا سطح علمی همکاران

کارگاه

  1

1/7/92 تا 21/1/93

طراحی و تولید بسته آموزشی محتوی الکترونیکی به صورت بروشور و پوستر آموزشی در تدریس مفاهیم زبان انگلیسی با محوریت بهبود کیفیت آموزشی در پایه های اول دوم سوم وچهارم متوسطه (دستورالعمل به پیوست ضمیمه میباشد)

بسته

   1

1/7/92 تا 20/10/92

 

 

 

2

 خلاقیت و نو آوری

غنی سازی و به روز رسانی وبلاگ گروه آموزشی

برنامه

   1

در طول سال تحصیلی

برگزاری مسابقه علمی دانش آموزی پایه اول )متوسطه2 (

مسابقه

  1

 

1/7/92 تا 2/2/93

ارسال مقاله جهت درج در فصلنامه الکترونیکی زبان انگلیسی طی دو ترم از طریق لوح فشرده

مقاله

  2

در طول سال تحصیلی

 

 

3

نقد وبررسی

نقد وبررسی کتاب پایه اول دوره متوسطه دوم

برنامه

   1

تا 8 دی ماه

 

 

 

 

4

 

بهبود شیوه های ارزشیابی   

ایجاد یا ارتقای بانک سوال مفهومی و استاندارد عملکردی

   سئوال

  1

در طول سال تحصیلی

تهیه مجموعه سئوالات تستی برای آمادگی کنکور

سئوال

 

در طول سال تحصیلی

تحلیل جامع از وضعیت آموزشی درس زبان انگلیسی ( بررسی علل رشد و افت تحصیلی )

برنامه

   1

در طول سال تحصیلی

تحلیل و بررسی سئوال امتحان نهایی زبان 3 در خرداد 92

سئوال

   1

تا 10 آبان

بررسی  سئوالات امتحانات خرداد ماه 92

 سئوال

    1

تا 10 آذر

بررسی و تحلیل سئوالات امتحان زبان 3 در دی ماه 91

سئوال

 

تا10 آذر

مسابقه  انتخاب طراح برگزیده سئوال استاندارد امتحان پایه اول متوسطه دوم در خرداد 92

مسابقه

    1

تا 10 آذر

[ شنبه یازدهم آبان 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ شنبه یازدهم آبان 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

inguistics

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Language is arguably what most obviously distinguishes humans from all other species. Linguistics involves the study of that system of communication underlying everyday scenes like this.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Its primary goal is to learn about the 'natural' language that humans use every day and how it works. Linguists ask such fundamental questions as: What aspects of language are universal for all humans? How can we account for the remarkable grammatical similarities between languages as apparently diverse as English, Japanese and Arabic? What are the rules of grammar that we language users employ, and how do we come to 'know' them? To what extent is the structure of language related to how we think about the world around us? A linguist, then, here refers to a linguistics expert who seeks to answer such questions, rather than someone who is multilingual.

Theoretical linguists are concerned with questions about the apparent human 'instinct' to communicate,[1] rather than authorising 'rules' of style or 'correctness' as found in grammar textbooks or popular guides.[2] For example, *dog the[3] is unacceptable in English, but children recognise as much long before they receive any formal grammatical instruction. It is such recognitions, and the implicit rules they imply, that are of primary concern in linguistics, as opposed to rules as prescribed by an authority.

Although interesting in its own right as one of the directions we follow to learn more about ourselves and the world around us, the study of linguistics is also highly relevant to solving real-life problems. Applied linguists may bring their insights to such fields as foreign language teaching, speech therapy and translation.[4] While in universities and research institutions worldwide, scholars are studying the facts of individual languages or the system of language itself to find evidence for theories or test hypotheses, applied linguists are at work in classrooms, clinics, courts and the highest levels of government. They use their knowledge to bridge linguistic divides, coax speech from the mouths of the disabled or abused, supply forensic evidence in courtroom trials, find out how language comes to children - in fact, they are everywhere people in need or in conflict over language are to be found.

In virtue of the fact stated in the first paragraph, that the primary goal of linguistics "is to learn about the 'natural' language that humans use every day and how it works", we recognize that core areas of linguistics qualify as biological science, a recognition reinforced by the kinds of questions studiers of linguistics ask and seek answers to, detailed in that first and the succeeding two paragraphs.[5]

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The study of linguistics

Core areas

Some linguists, such as theoretical syntacticians, focus on one 'core' area. Research may involve developing a model to describe and predict the workings of the system of language itself, rather than explaining how people happen to use language. These 'core' fields together constitute the grammar of a language - not a list of rules in a book, but components the system requires for communication.

PD Image
Levels of linguistic knowledge involved in producing the utterance 'the cats'.

Syntax

For more information, see: Syntax.

Syntax is the study of how units including words and phrases combine into sentences. For example, why is Bill ate the fish acceptable but Ate the Bill fish not? Syntacticians investigate what orders of words make legitimate sentences, how to succinctly account for patterns found across sentences, such as correspondences between active sentences (John threw the ball) and passive sentences (The ball was thrown by John), and some types of ambiguity, as in Visiting relatives can be boring (which has two readings!).

(CC) Photo: Nick Thompson
A lecture in American Sign Language. Phonology and linguistics generally involve the study not just of speech but also sign language; the same system used to represent language, whether by sound or sign, is widely viewed as underlying both. Research into sign language also benefits from the insights of linguists who are themselves native signers.

Phonology

For more information, see: Phonology.

Phonology is the study of the grammatical system speakers use to represent language in the real world, which organises syllable structure, intonation, tone, and - in sign languages - hand movements. A phonologist divides an example of language into its phonological components: for example, English cat appears as a single syllable arranging the segments [k], [æ][6] and [t].[7] Although there are potentially infinitely many ways of producing a sound, shaping a letter or moving a hand, phonologists are interested only in how these group into abstract categories: for example, how and why [k] is often perceived as different from [t], whereas in many languages, other sounds as different as those are not.

Phonetics

For more information, see: Phonetics.

Phonetics focuses on the physical sounds of speech. Phonetics covers speech perception (how the brain discerns sounds), acoustics (the physical qualities of sounds as movement through air), and articulation (voice production through the movements of the lungs, tongue, lips, and other articulators). This area investigates, for instance, the physical realization of speech and how individual sounds differ across languages and dialects. This research plays a large part in computer speech recognition and synthesis.

Morphology

For more information, see: Morphology.

Morphology examines how linguistic units such as words and their subparts (such as prefixes and suffixes) combine. One example of this is the observation that while walk+ed is acceptable, *ed+walk is not, in Engish, while in other languages such affixes can be found wholly inside the stems they attach to.

Semantics

For more information, see: Semantics (linguistics).

Semantics within linguistics refers to the study of how language conveys meaning.[8] For example, English speakers typically realise that Chomsky's famous sentence Colorless green ideas sleep furiously is well-formed in terms of word order, but incomprehensible in terms of meaning.[9] Other aspects of meaning studied here include how speakers understand certain types of ambiguous sentences such as A student met every professor (a different student, or the same student?), and the extent to which sentences which are superficially very different, such as The wine flowed freely and Much wine was consumed, mean similar things.[10]

Pragmatics

For more information, see: Pragmatics.

Pragmatics is the study of how utterances relate to the context they are spoken in. For instance, the sentence I have two pencils can mean two very different things, depending on whether the speaker has been asked how many pencils he has, in which case the speaker means he has exactly two, or is just confirming that he has at least two (such as in response to Can me and my friend borrow two pencils from you?), leaving open the possibility that he has more. This sort of understanding is not predictable just by knowledge of language; speakers must also know something about the intentions and assumptions of others to co-operate in communication.

Other fields of linguistics

To factor out circumstances that may obscure fundamental insights, many linguists may choose to focus on language as presumed to occur in an idealised, adult, monolingual native speaker - prerequisites often found in mainstream generative linguistics.[11] In contrast, linguists whose research moves away from any of these four criteria may concentrate on fields arranged around the study of language use and learning:

  • Biolinguistics, an interdisciplinary field encompassing and integrating many of the fields below, explores human natural language’s basic properties, development in individuals, use in thinking and communicating, brain implementation, genetic underpinnings, and evolutionary origins.[5]
  • Language acquisition, theoretical or applied study of how linguistic knowledge emerges in children and adults as first or subsequent languages, whether naturalistically (without instruction) or in the classroom;[12]
  • Theoretical linguistics [r]: Core field of linguistics, which attempts to establish the characteristics of the system of language itself by postulating models of linguistic competence common to all humans. [e]
  • Sociolinguistics, the study of how language varies according to cultural context, the speaker's background, and the situation in which it is used;
  • Stylistics, the study of how language differs according to use and context, e.g. advertising versus speechmaking;
  • Linguistic variation, the study of the differences among the languages of the world. This has implications for linguistics in general: if human linguistic ability is narrowly constrained, then languages must be very similar. If human linguistic ability is unconstrained, then languages might vary greatly.
  • Computational linguistics has had a great influence on theories of syntax and semantics, as modelling syntactic and semantic theories on computers constrains the theories to computable operations and provides a more rigorous mathematical basis.

Other cross-disciplinary areas of linguistics include neurolinguistics, evolutionary linguistics and cognitive science.

Applied linguistics

Main article: Applied linguistics

Whereas theoretical linguistics is concerned with finding and describing generalities both within particular languages and among all languages, applied linguistics takes these results and applies them to other areas. Often applied linguistics refers to the use of linguistic research in language teaching, but this is just one sub-discipline:

  • Research in language teaching: today, 'applied linguistics' is sometimes used to refer to 'second language acquisition', but these are distinct fields, in that SLA involves more theoretical study of the system of language, whereas applied linguistics concerns itself more with teaching and learning. In their approach to the study of learning, applied linguists have increasingly devised their own theories and methodologies, such as the shift towards studying the learner rather than the system of language itself, in contrast to the emphasis within SLA.[14][15]

Approach to studying language

Modern linguists' methodologies, assumptions and practices differ significantly from those of past generations. One of the most fundamental principles of modern linguistics is that it is descriptive rather than prescriptive: it describes language without judging how people use it. Also, as no language is known to have been written before being spoken, linguists consider spoken rather than written language to be the primary focus. In language acquisition, most researchers agree that language cannot be acquired through imitation; some aspects must be innate. Finally, most modern linguistics focuses on language as used today; however, historical linguistics remains an important sub-field.

Prescription and description

Linguists seek to clarify the nature of language, to describe how people use it, and to find the underlying grammar that speakers unconsciously adhere to. Linguists do not judge what speech is better or worse syntactically, correct or incorrect grammatically, and do not try to prescribe future language directions. Nonetheless, some professionals and many amateurs do try to prescribe rules of language, holding a particular standard for all to follow.

Prescription comes in two flavors, those that are linguistically founded and those that are not. For instance, the rule of English that subjects and verbs must agree (i.e. that when the subject is third-person singular, the verb takes an "s" ending, like "I/you/they run" but "he runs") can be the basis of linguistically founded prescription, so long as the speaker is intending to speak standard American English. Speakers of standard American English do follow subject-verb agreement, and thus if the intention is to teach that language, this rule should be taught.

However, prescriptivists often stray from this type of linguistically founded recommendation. These prescriptivists tend to be found among the ranks of language educators and journalists, and not in the academic discipline of linguistics. Often considering themselves speakers of the standard form of a particular language, they may hold clear notions of what is right and wrong and what variety of language is most likely to lead the next generation of speakers to 'success'. For example, they may believe that all speakers of what they would call English should follow the same rule of subject-verb agreement, while in fact some varieties of English, which are in a sense distinct languages in their own right, do not do subject-verb agreement the same way. The reasons for their intolerance of non-standard dialects, treating them as "incorrect" , may include distrust of neologisms, connections to socially-disapproved dialects, or simple conflicts with pet theories.

Prescriptivists often also make linguistically unfounded recommendations that seem plausibly true, but which have little linguistic evidence to support them. For instance, the rule against leaving a preposition at the end of a clause or sentence (such as in I met the professor I wrote to) is commonly believed to be 'correct' English.[20] However, speakers of English not only use final prepositions frequently, indicating that it is perfectly natural English to do so, but bringing the preposition to the front may result in a sentence that could well sound ridiculous to any native speaker of English.[21]

Descriptive linguists, on the other hand, do not accept the prescriptivists' notion of 'incorrect usage' in a general sense. They aim to describe the usages the prescriptivist has in mind, either as common or deviant from some linguistic norm, as an idiosyncratic variation, or as regularity (a rule) followed by speakers of some other dialect (in contrast to the common prescriptive assumption that "bad" usage is unsystematic). Within the context of fieldwork, descriptive linguistics refers to the study of language using a descriptivist approach. Descriptivist methodology more closely resembles scientific methodology in other disciplines.

Speech versus writing

(CC) Photo: Nick Thompson
Linguistics examines all forms of language, but the written word is considered at best an incomplete representation of a linguistic system. Linguists generally consider that more fundamental insights can be gleaned into the nature of language by analysing natural, spontaneous speech, rather than assuming the primacy of writing.

Languages have only been written for a few thousand years, but have been spoken (or signed) for much longer. The written word may therefore provide less of a window onto how language works than the study of speech, even assuming that the culture which the language forms part of has a writing system - the majority of the world's languages remain unwritten. Furthermore, the study of written language can play no part in investigating first language acquisition, since infants are obviously yet to become literate. Overall, language is held to be an evolutionary adaptation, whereas writing is a comparatively recent invention. Spoken and signed language, then, may tell us much about human evolution and the structure of the mind.

Of course, linguists also agree that the study of written language can be worthwhile and valuable. For linguistic research that uses the methods of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics, written language is often much more convenient for processing large amounts of linguistic data. Large corpora of spoken language are difficult to create and hard to find, and are typically transcribed and written. Additionally, linguists have turned to text-based discourse occurring in various formats of computer-mediated communication as a viable site for linguistic inquiry. Writing, however, brings with it a number of problems; for example, it often acts as a historical record, preserving words, phrases, styles and spellings of a previous era. This may be of limited use for studying how language is used at the present time.

Innatism

One of the most interesting aspects of language is that normally, young children acquire whatever language is spoken (or signed, in the case of sign language) around them when they are growing up, without apparently being 'taught' the language. By contrast, other animals, even highly intelligent primates that are closely related to humans, need very intensive training to produce even minimally language-like behaviour.[22] Additionally, since children understand and produce utterances which they have never previously experienced, and since they appear to reject ill-formed sentences even at an early age,[23] it has been widely concluded that the infant brain must in some way be ready to acquire any language. 'Nativist' linguists argue that such a system, presumably specified in our genes,[24] must also account for why all languages are fundamentally similar.[25][26]

Historical linguistics

Whereas the core of theoretical linguistics is concerned with studying languages at a particular point in time (usually the present), historical linguistics (or diachronic linguistics) examines how language changes through time, sometimes over centuries. Historical linguistics enjoys both a rich history (the study of linguistics grew out of historical linguistics) and a strong theoretical foundation for the study of language change.

In universities in the USA, the non-historic perspective seems to have the upper hand. Many introductory linguistics classes, for example, cover historical linguistics only cursorily. The shift in focus to a non-historic perspective started with Saussure and became predominant with Noam Chomsky.

In popular culture, one aspect of linguistics which is particularly popular is etymology, the study of word origins. This is related to historical linguistics, in that a word's history is traced over time, but does not form a central component of modern language study; linguistics is more concerned with patterns of change over time and what this has to contribute to an understanding of the nature of language itself.

History of linguistics

For more information, see: History of linguistics.

Questions about language, its origins and nature have been a centre of interest in many civilizations.[27] From ancient times until the 18th century, insights into language mainly involved explaining the grammar of particular languages, such as Sanskrit, or describing changes over time.

Some aspects of modern linguistics can be traced to the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. He was the first to rigorously define language and therefore define what linguistics is, and also introduced the idea of language as a system or structure, which would heavily influence the field. Saussure's work was an early example of how the primary purpose of linguistics became to explain how languages work at one given moment of time and establish how languages work through both empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning. Elsewhere, a primary concern with describing and preserving the grammars of diverse languages continued well into the twentieth century.

From the 1950s, Noam Chomsky and his contemporaries initiated new methods in linguistics, producing explicit theories of grammar[28] - namely, systems that required no reference to other kinds of knowledge. Parallel to this 'Chomskyian' focus on the nature of the linguistic system, concerns about how language was used in society began to mature. In this way, from the 1960s William Labov was a pioneer in studies of socioling

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Constituent (linguistics)

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In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. The analysis of constituent structure is associated mainly with phrase structure grammars, although dependency grammars also allow sentence structure to be broken down into constituent parts. The constituent structure of sentences is identified using constituency tests. These tests manipulate some portion of a sentence and based on the result, clues are delivered about the immediate constituent structure of the sentence.

Contents

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Constituency tests [edit]

Constituency tests are diagnostics employed to identify the constituent structure of sentences.[1] There are numerous constituency tests applied to English sentences, many of which are listed here: 1. topicalization (fronting), 2. clefting, 3. pseudoclefting, 4. pro-form substitution (replacement), 5. answer ellipsis (question test), 6. passivization, 7. omission (deletion), 8. coordination, etc. These tests are rough-and-ready tools that grammarians employ to reveal clues about syntactic structure. A word of caution is warranted when employing these tests, since they often deliver contradictory results. Some syntacticians even arrange the tests on a scale of reliability, with less-reliable tests treated as useful to confirm constituency though not sufficient on their own.[2] Failing to pass a single test does not mean that the unit is not a constituent, and conversely, passing a single test does not mean necessarily that the unit is a constituent. It is best to apply as many tests as possible to a given unit in order to prove or to rule out its status as a constituent.

Topicalization (fronting) [edit]

Topicalization involves moving the test sequence to the front of the sentence. It is a simple movement operation:[3]

He is going to attend another course to improve his English.
To improve his English, he is going to attend another course.

Clefting [edit]

Clefting involves placing a sequence of words X within the structure beginning with It is/was: It was X that...[4]

She bought a pair of gloves with silk embroidery.
It was a pair of gloves with silk embroidery that she bought.

Pseudoclefting [edit]

Pseudoclefting (also preposing) is similar to clefting in that it puts emphasis on a certain phrase in a sentence. It involves inserting a sequence of words before is/are what or is/are who:[5]

She bought a pair of gloves with silk embroidery.
A pair of gloves with silk embroidery is what she bought.

Pro-form substitution (replacement) [edit]

Pro-form substitution, or replacement, involves replacing the test constituent with the appropriate pro-form (e.g. pronoun). Substitution normally involves using a definite pro-form like it, he, there, here, etc. in place of a phrase or a clause. If such a change yields a grammatical sentence where the general structure has not been altered, then the test sequence is a constituent:[6]

I don't know the man who is sleeping in the car.
*I don't know him who is sleeping in the car. (ungrammatical)
I don't know him.

The ungrammaticality of the first changed version and the grammaticality of the second one demonstrates that the whole sequence, the man who is sleeping in the car, and not just the man is a constituent functioning as a unit.

Answer ellipsis (answer fragments, question test) [edit]

The answer ellipsis test refers to the ability of a sequence of words to stand alone as a reply to a question. It is often used to test the constituency of a verbal phrase but can also be applied to other phrases:[7]

What did you do yesterday? - Worked on my new project.
What did you do yesterday? - *Worked on. (unacceptable, so worked on is not a constituent).

Linguists do not agree whether passing the answer ellipsis test is sufficient, though at a minimum they agree that it can help confirm the results of another constituency test.

Passivization [edit]

Passivization involves changing an active sentence to a passive sentence, or vice versa. The object of the active sentence is changed to the subject of the corresponding passive sentence:[8]

A car driving at breakneck speed nearly hit the little dog.
The little dog was nearly hit by a car driving at breakneck speed.

In case passivization results in a grammatical sentence, the phrases that have been moved can be regarded as constituents.

Omission (deletion) [edit]

Omission checks whether a sequence of words can be omitted without influencing the grammaticality of the sentence — in most cases, local or temporal adverbials can be safely omitted and thus qualify as constituents.[9]

Fred relaxes at night on his couch.
Fred relaxes on his couch.
Fred relaxes at night.

Since they can be omitted, the prepositional phrases at night and on his couch are constituents.

Coordination [edit]

The coordination test assumes that only constituents can be coordinated, i.e., joined by means of a coordinator such as and:[10]

He enjoys [writing sentences] and [reading them].
[He enjoys writing] and [she enjoys reading] sentences.
[He enjoys] but [she hates] writing sentences.

Based on the fact that writing sentences and reading them are coordinated using and, one can conclude that they are constituents. The validity of the coordination test is challenged by additional data, however. The latter two sentences, which are instances of so-called right node raising, suggest that the sequences in bold should be understood as constituents. Most grammars do not view sequences such as He enjoys to the exclusion of the VP writing sentences as a constituent. Thus while the coordination test is widely employed as a diagnostic for constituent structure, it is faced with major difficulties and is therefore perhaps the least reliable of all the tests mentioned.[11]

Constituency tests and disambiguation [edit]

Syntactic ambiguity characterizes sentences which can be interpreted in different ways depending solely on how one perceives syntactic connections between words and arranges them into phrases. Possible interpretations of the sentence They killed the man with a gun:

'The man was shot'.
'The man who was killed had a gun with him'.

The ambiguity of this sentence results from two possible arrangements into constituents:

They killed [the man] [with a gun].
They killed [the man with a gun].

In the first sentence, with a gun is an independent constituent with instrumental meaning. In the second sentence, it is embedded in the noun phrase the man with a gun and is modifying the noun man. The autonomy of the unit with a gun in the first interpretation can be tested by the answer ellipsis test:

How did they kill the man? - With a gun.

However, the same test can be used to prove that the man with a gun in the second sentence should be treated as a unit:

Who(m) did they kill? - The man with a gun.

The ability of constituency tests to disambiguate certain sentence in this manner bears witness to their utility. Most if not all syntacticians employ constituency tests in some form or another to arrive at the structures that they assign to sentences.

Competing theories [edit]

Alternate theoretical approaches to syntax make different assumptions regarding what is considered a constituent. In mainstream phrase structure grammar (and its derivatives), individual words are constituents in and of themselves as well as being parts of other constituents, whereas in dependency grammar,[12] certain core words in each phrase are not a constituent by themselves, but only members of a phrasal constituent. The following trees show the same sentence in two different theoretical representations, with a phrase structure representation on the left and a dependency grammar representation on the right. In both trees, a constituent is understood to be the entire tree or any labelled subtree (a node plus all the nodes dominated by that node); note that words like killed and with, for instance, form subtrees (and are considered constituents) in the phrase structure representation but not in the dependency structure representation.[13]

Illustrating constituency and dependency
[ پنجشنبه دوم خرداد 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

Here are ten common idioms which are related to body parts:

foot in mouth

To put your foot in your mouth means that you say or do something that accidentally embarrasses or offends another person

'I put my foot in my mouth when I called by brother's new wife by his ex-wife's name.'

cost an arm and a leg

When something costs an arm and a leg it costs a lot of money. It's very expensive.'

'It cost me an arm and a leg to get my car fixed.'

get off my back

We use this expression when someone is criticising you or telling what to do all the time.

'Stop telling me what to do. Get off my back!'

cold shoulder

To give someone the cold shoulder means to ignore someone.

'I saw my ex-girlfriend at a party but she wouldn't talk to me. She gave me the cold shoulder.'

cold feet

To get nervous and to have second thoughts about doing something.

'I'm getting cold feet about my wedding. I'm so nervous.'

a sight for sore eyes

We use this expression when we are very happy to see someone or something.

'Hi Frank. You're a sight for sore eyes. I haven't seen you for years.'

a finger in every pie

To have a finger in every pie means that you are involved in many activities.

off the top of my head

Off the top of my head means that you say something without really thinking about it. A spontaneous reaction.

'Off the top of my head, I'd say there were a thousand people there.'

look down your nose

When you look down your nose at someone you think you are better or more important than them.

'Because he's rich he seems to think that he's better than everyone. He really looks down his nose at people.'

play it by ear

To play it by ears means to improvise or do something without preparation.

I don't know where we should go tonight. Let's just play it by ear.'

Link: Time Idioms

  • The business man seemed to have a finger in every .
  • They charge an arm and a at that restaurant.
  • Good to see you, Jane. You are a for sore eyes.
  • She has cold about her trip, but she will be ok.
  • Be careful what you say. Try not to put your in your mouth.
  • She is always complaining about me. She will not get off my .
  • He
[ دوشنبه شانزدهم اردیبهشت 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
Sitting in a classroom with the smell of chalk and glue,
I think back to those days when I hated to get up early
Couldn't stand to be there and couldn't wait to get home.
In the beginning I was that child that struggled,
Until the day that special teacher came into my life—
The first one that believed in me and took time with me—
The first one that helped me find that school was fascinating
And that I was intelligent and had something to give—
The first time I did not have that blank stare—
The beginning of my lifelong love for learning—
The beginning of everything.
And now older and wiser I look forward to going,
Can't wait to do the work and enjoy every minute of it,
While most are just wanting to be finished with it.
There are those of us doing everything we can to get back to it.
 
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  10. 250 Often Confused Words • A


  11. Below are the words beginning on A of a list of more than 250 words that speakers and writers of English often confuse. They are called false cognates because they sound or are written so similarly that they are often confused. Even if you are an excellent writer, you should read through this list; otherwise, how will you know if you are confusing any words? We will soon have a quiz that will help you check your knowledge of the most common false English cognates.

  12. |A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z|
    • A •
    WORDS DEFINITIONS & EXAMPLES
    a lot
    allot
    A lot is two words meaning "much": A lot of bologna was left over from the party.
    Allot is a verb meaning "distribute proportionately, to portion out": You guys need to allot a lot more time to practice!
    a while
    awhile
    A while is two words meaning "a short period of time": I will meet you in a while. These two words are never spelled together.
    a
    an
    and
    A is an indefinite article used before nouns beginning with a consonant: a photograph, a tree, a horse.
    An is to be used before nouns beginning with a vowel (sound): an apple, an hour, an elephant.
    And is a conjunction used between nouns in a list: A blanket and picnic basket are needed for the afternoon.
    accede
    exceed
    Accede means "to agree or allow": Hiram Cheaply finally acceded to accepting the presidency of the company.
    Exceed means "to go beyond, to surpass": The amount of alcohol in his blood exceeded the previous record.
    accept
    except
    Accept means "to take willingly": Miss Deeds accepted the cup of hot tea even without a saucer.
    Except is a preposition meaning "excluding": Everyone was disappointed with the party except Ida Goodtime.
    adapt
    adept
    adopt
    Adapt means "to adjust": Minnie Miles quickly adapted to working 20 miles away from home.
    Adept means "skilled": Lucille is adept at speaking languages.
    Adopt means to "accept as your own": It was difficult to adopt only one puppy from the animal shelter.
    adverse
    averse
    Adverse means "unfavorable, hostile": Those driving in adverse winter conditions may be putting themselves at risk.
    Averse means "repulsed or repelled": She was immediately averse to the idea.
    advice
    advise
    Advice is a noun meaning "an opinion given with the intention of helping": My mother still gives me advice even though I'm 40 years old.
    Advise is a verb meaning "to give counsel or advice": The meteorologist advised listeners to stay indoors because of the extremely cold temperatures.
    affect
    effect
    Affect is most often used as a verb meaning "to influence and change": The president's speech affected his views of the upcoming election.
    The verb effect means "to cause": Batting her eyes so flirtatiously effected a strong desire in Rathbone to embrace Mirabelle.
    aid
    aide
    Aid is help or assistance given: Every Christmas the community gives aid to those less fortunate.
    An aide is a person who helps: Frieda Gogh worked five years as a teacher's aide.
    airs
    heirs
    Airs refers to snobbish and artificial behavior: Portia Radclyffe put on airs at the fine dinner party just because she had a few diamonds dangling from her neck.
    Heirs are people who, because they are family, will inherit an estate or title: Portia was the heir to her mother's diamonds.
    all right
    alright
    All right is a phrase meaning "everything is right": Is all right here?
    Alright is a single word meaning "OK": All are alright here.
    all together
    altogether
    All together is applied to people or things that are being treated as a whole: We always had fun when we were all together. To double check this usage, try separating the two words: We all had fun when were together.
    Altogether is an adverb that means "completely or totally": Using a flashlight in bed is an altogether new approach to reading at night.
    all ways
    always
    All ways means "by every means or method": Dirk tried all ways to navigate the storm.
    Always means "forever": Sue St. Marie always responded calmly during emergency situations.
    allude
    elude
    Allude means "to suggest indirectly": Leticia can't speak to her husband without alluding to his affair with Martha Snodgrass.
    Elude means "to dodge or escape": Serious relationships always seemed to elude him. Also beware of illude "to deceive, trick", the verb underlying illusion. It isn't used often but it is out there.
    allusion
    illusion
    An allusion is a subtle reference or hint: Rita Book made an allusion to the most recent novel she read in our conversation yesterday.
    An illusion is a deception, mirage, or a wild idea: The teacher said she had no illusions about how much work teaching demands.
    almost
    most
    Almost means "nearly all": Almost all my friends have graduated from college by now.
    Most is superlative of more, meaning "the greatest or to the highest degree": Chuck is the most computer savvy guy I know, or Chuck cooked a most delicious supper.
    aloud
    allowed
    Aloud means "speaking out so that someone else can hear you": Read this paragraph aloud.
    Allowed means "having permission": His boss allowed him to take the weekend off.
    already, all ready Already is an adverb that indicates an action is completed by a certain time: Herschel had already finished the whole pie by the time his guests arrived.
    All ready means "everyone or everything is completely prepared": The children were all ready and bundled up warmly to go caroling on the snowy evening.
    alternately
    alternatively
    Alternately means "taking turns": We paddled alternately so neither of us would get too tired.
    Alternatively means "as an option": Instead of going by train, we could have gone alternatively by car.
    altar
    alter
    An altar is a table used in communion and other services in a church: The priest conducted the ceremony at the altar."
    To alter means "to change": Don't alter a thing; leave everything as it is.
    ambiguous
    ambivalent
    Ambiguous is describes a phrase or act with more than one meaning, or one that is unclear: The ending of the short story is ambiguous; we don't know if he died or continue his journey.
    Ambivalent means "uncertainty and having conflicting attitudes and feelings": He was ambivalent as to which candidate to vote for.
    amiable
    amicable
    Amiable refers to a person who is friendly, good-natured, and pleasant: Susan was very amiable and liked by all.
    Amicable means "friendly and peaceable", and is used to describe agreements or relationships between groups or people: After years of disagreement, the two countries came to an amicable agreement.
    among
    between
    Among is used for three or more: Shirley had to choose among four universities she might attend.
    Between refers to only two two things: I couldn't decide between blue and green.
    amoral
    immoral
    Amoral means "having no principles at all, good or bad": Percy is totally amoral; he is either helping others or helping himself at their expense.
    Immoral means "bad, lacking good principles": Everything his brother does harms others whether it benefits him or not.
    amount
    number
    Amount is used with uncountable and abstract nouns: a large amount of money, amount of work, amount of happiness or amount of dirt.
    Number is used with countable and concrete plural expressions: a number of people, a number of attempts, a number of novels, a number of trials.
    amused
    bemused
    Amused is when something is entertaining: The children were amused by watching the kittens play.
    Bemused means "bewildered" or "lost in thought": George was bemused by the unexpected ending to the movie.
    annual
    annul
    Annual means "yearly": We must pay an annual tax.
    Annul means "to make void or invalid": They want to annul the marriage.
    any one
    anyone
    Any one means "any one person": Any one of you may go, but not all of you.
    Anyone means "anybody, any person at all": Anyone can chew gum and walk at the same time.
    anyway
    anywhere
    nowhere
    Anyway, anywhere, and nowhere are the correct forms of these words.
    apart
    a part
    Apart is an adverb meaning "in pieces": My plan for my vacation fell apart.
    A part is a noun meaning "one section of": A part of my heart left when he did.
    appraise
    apprise
    Appraise means "to assess or estimate the worth of": The jeweler appraise a diamond at $5000.
    Apprise means "to inform or notify": the officer apprised us of our rights.
    arcane
    archaic
    Arcane refers to things known and understood by few people: Amanda Lynn teaches arcane theories of modern music at the college.
    Archaic refers to things very, very old and outdated: The Oxford English Dictionary contains many words that are archaic.
    as
    like
    As may be used as a conjunction that introduce dependent clauses: George talks as his father does. Informally, it may also be used as a preposition in comparative constructions like: Jean-Claude is as forgetful as me (or as I am).
    Like is a preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun: George looks like his mother. It may also be used as an adjective meaning "similar": George and I have like minds.
    ascent
    assent
    Ascent is an upward movement, physical or abstract: Leo's ascent to the presidency of the company came slowly.
    Assent means "to agree to": Greta could not begin the project unless management assented.
    ascetic
    aesthetic
    An ascetic is a person who renounces all material comforts, often for religious devotion: the young man became an ascetic despite his parents' hopes that he would be a dentist. It can also be used as an adjective: Ethan Asia led an ascetic lifestyle.
    Aesthetic refers to the philosophy of beauty or the pleasing qualities of something: The statuette Leander created was lacking in aesthetic qualities.
    ascribe
    describe
    Ascribe means "to attribute to": She ascribed her feelings of jealousy to insecurity.
    Describe means "to show what something is by drawing a picture with words": Describe in detail what the man looked like.
    aspersion
    dispersion
    Aspersion is slander, a damaging remark: The campaign was filled with one aspersion after another.
    Dispersion is the act of scattering: The dispersion of seeds was irregular because he sowed the seeds by hand.
    assent
    ascent
    See ascent, assent.
    assistance
    assistants
    Assistance is help or aid: the nurses gave assistance to the patients.
    Assistants are more than one assistant, a person who gives help: the emergency room assistants were ready to help anyone who came through the door. (See also patience and patients.)
    assure
    ensure
    insure
    Assure means "to guarantee": He assured her it was a quality item. (Outside the US this word can also mean "insure".)
    Ensure means "to make sure by double checking": The custodian ensured the doors to the school were locked at night.
    Insure means "to provide insurance": It is wise to insure your house against flood, fire, or theft. (Insurance may be assurance outside the US.)
    auger
    augur
    An auger is a tool used for digging holes: If you want to ice fish, you need to first drill a hole in the ice with an auger.
    Augur means "to predict, forecast": Leroy's inheritance augured happiness for him in the near future.
    |A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z|
     
    •  
  13.  
  14. //
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        شعر رایانه یی

ای خدای windows دل را باز کن!
یک print از رحمتت آغاز کن!
option غم را خدایا on مکن!
فایل اشکم را خدایا run مکن!
نام تو password درهای بهشت!
آدرس e mile سایت سرنوشت!
ای خدا حرف دلم باکی زنم!
help می خواهم که F1 میزنم!
refresh این دل به الطاف توست!
save انعامش در این ماه نوست!
با clear کردن ذهن از گناه!
ما به تو می آوریم عذر و پناه!

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همه تن چشم شدم، دنبال ID
ی تو گشتم

شوق دیدار تو لبریز شد از Case
وجودم
شدم آن User
دیوانه که بودم

وسط صفحه Room ،Desktop
یاد تو درخشید
Ding
صد پنجره پیچید

شکلکی زرد بخندید
یادم آمد که شبی با هم از آن Chat
بگذشتیم

Room گشودیم و در آن PM
دلخواسته گشتیم
لحظه ای بی خط و پیغام نشستیم

تو و Yahoo و Ding
و دنگ
همه دلداده به یک Talk
بد آهنگ

Windows و Hard و Mother Board

آریا دست برآورده به Keyboard

تو همه راز جهان ریخته در طرز سلامت
من بدنبال معنای کلامت

یادم آمد که به من گفتی از این عشق حذر کن
لحظه ای چند بر این
Room
نظر کن

Chat
آئینه عشق گذران است
تو که امروز نگاهت به Email
ی نگران است

باش فردا که PM
ات با دگران است
تا فراموش کنی چندی از این Log Out ،Room
کن

باز گفتم حذر از Chat
ندانم
ترک Chat
کردن هرگز نتوانم نتوانم

روز اول که Email
ام به تمنای تو پر زد
مثل Spam تو Inbox
تو نشستم

تو Delet
کردی ولی من نرمیدم نه گسستم
باز گفتم که تو یک Hacker و من User
مستم

تا به دام تو درافتم Room
ها رو گشتم و گشتم
تو مرا Hack
بنمودی. نرمیدم. نگسستم

Room
ی از پایه فرو ریخت
Hacker ی Ignore
تلخی زد و بگریخت

Hard
بر مهر تو خندید
PC
از عشق تو هنگید

رفت در ظلمت شب آن شب و شبهای دگرهم
نگرفتی دگر از User
آزرده خبر هم

نکنی دگر از آن Room
گذر هم
بی تو اما به چه حالی من از آن Room
گذشتم
[ چهارشنبه بیست و یکم فروردین 1392 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

عید است ولی بدون او غم داریم / عاشق شده ایم و عشق را کم داریم
ای کاش که این عید ظهورش برسد / اینگونه هزار عید با هم داریم
اللهم عجل لولیک الفرج
سال نو مبارک

[ دوشنبه بیست و هشتم اسفند 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
not occur with objects, so they cannot be used in the passive voice.

agree

appear 

arrived

become

belong

collapse

collide

consist of

cost

depend

die

disappear

emerge

exist

fall

go

happen

have*

knock  (sound)

laugh

lie

live

look

last (endure)

occur

remain 

respond

rise

sit

sleep

stand

stay

swim

vanish

wait 

†awake (trans. and intransitive) – I awoke / I awoke her.
 *Except: I was had. (slang) – someone took advantage of me.

[ شنبه بیست و یکم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ شنبه بیست و یکم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ جمعه بیستم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]

Metaphors and metaphorical expressions in English


Metaphors

(Pronounced: meta-forz)

Many English words have both literal and metaphorical or figurative meanings. The literal meaning of a word is its most widely used sense. The metaphorical meaning is figurative - it expresses an idea by referring to something else in a non-literal way. Metaphors help us to express our understanding of the world around us. They add colour, vivid imagery and perhaps emotion to a sentence.

In everyday English, words are very commonly used metaphorically. We use metaphors so regularly that we often don't even register that we are using them. For example, we have lots of metaphors about weather.

  • The sky was dark and angry.
  • His lightning reflexes saved his life.
  • His sunny face was just what I wanted to see.

The sky cannot be literally angry and no-one can have reflexes as fast as lightning; a sunny face helps us to think of the warmth of the sun and we transfer this to the character of this person. These words (metaphors) are used to express our understanding or our interpretation of the world around us as clearly as possible.

A lot of metaphors relate to nature in general.

  • I think this will throw some light on the issue.
  • I've made some punch with wine, fruit juice and a little brandy to break the ice.
  • The agreement was hedged around by a large number of restrictions.
  • That politician is a sly fox.

The use of "light", "break the ice" and "hedged" are all nature-based metaphors that are used to express how we view the world.

A lot of metaphors are based on gardens or agriculture. For example, we often use the word root to refer to the cause of a problem. It can also be used to describe something starting to grow.

  • The root of this problem is Blair's decision to go into Iraq.
  • If we keep on pushing this idea forward, it might actually take root.
  • The Labour Party wants to have a very strong grass-roots campaign.
  • After a rocky start, their romance blossomed.
  • This is a thorny issue so it will take some time to sort it out.

Many metaphors relate to water.

  • The ocean of his mind was awash with new ideas.
  • I don't want to go out with him. He's so wet!
  • Waves of disappointment swept over him.
  • He watered down his proposal quite a lot and in the end it wasn't radical enough.
  • My legs turned to water and I couldn't move.

Have a look at these metaphors and think about how they relate to the literal meaning.

  • I swallowed his story whole, I'm sorry to say.
  • Her eyes were filled with pain and I couldn't look at her.
  • Taking this job is a gamble but I hope it works out well in the end.
  • Hotels have sprouted up all over Thailand.
  • The minutes crept by as the party was so dull!
  • Bush said he would stay the course in Iraq.
  • There was a huge amount of fallout over Blair's decision.
  • Low interest rated fuelled the house-prices boom.
  • His idea was warmly received.
  • The two presidential candidates were neck and neck.
  • We'd better go back to square one and start again.
  • His refusal set off a chain of events that ended in his arrest.
  • She made a fatal mistake when she signed the agreement.

Cliches

A cliche is 'a stereotyped, or hackneyed, or trite phrase or expression' (Jarvie, 1993) used so often that its original value as an expression has been lost; for example, in this day and age; when all's said and done; axis of evil; light at the end of the tunnel; chalk and cheese; the bottom line is...

Students need to recognize and understand the meaning of common cliches but should avoid overusing them, especially in academic or formal writing.

Cultural implications

A metaphor is a "condensed simile": instead of explicitly comparing the characteristics of one person or thing with another, we say that person/thing IS the other person/animal/thing.

With a metaphor, because the comparison is not explicit, it can lead to confusion. If the comparison is not recognized, the expression may be taken literally instead of figuratively.

Metaphorical expressions typically relate to one particular characteristic and that characteristic may be implicit within a particular cultural setting. If we say "He is the leader of the pack" we are positively admiring someone's leadership qualities - we are not saying anything about other similarities to a pack of wolves or other wild animals!

[ جمعه بیستم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
stories
[ جمعه بیستم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ سه شنبه هفدهم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
am not just a teacher, I AM A GARDNER.

Mine is to sow and water the seeds of greatness in the future leaders entrusted in my care and to weed out all the ill habits that will hinder them from achieving their full potentials

I am not just a teacher, I AM AN ARTIST.

Mine is to paint beautiful pictures of a great future on the hearts of everyone that reports to me.

I am not just a teacher, I AM MENTOR.

Mine is to give these great future leaders the keys to success and to shine the light on the pitfalls along their career paths to success.

I am not just a teacher, I AM A BUILDER.

Mine is to build in them the principles, habits and lifestyle of greatness daily, one day at a time.

I am not just a teacher, I AM A ROLE MODEL.

Mine is to be a shining example of what true greatness can be.

I am  not just a teacher,  I AM A GREAT LEADER.

FELA DUROTOYE

[ شنبه چهاردهم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
[ شنبه چهاردهم بهمن 1391 ] [ ] [ گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه 2 کرمانشاه ]
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.: Weblog Themes By Pichak :.

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باسلام و عرض ادب خدمت شما بازدید کنندگان عزیز.این وبلاگ متعلق به گروه زبان انگلیسی ناحیه دو کرمانشاه میباشد که در سال (86) توسط این گروه طراحی و راه اندازی شد.بدان امید که توانسته باشیم گامی هر چند کوچک و ناچیز در راه خدمت به همکاران گرامی و کلیه کسانی که از این وبلاگ بازدید می کنند برداشته باشیم .صمیمانه از بازدید شما سپاگزاریم و امید واریم که ما را از نظرات و پیشنهادات سازنده خود محروم نفرمایید.چنانجه مطلب یاموضوعی را جهت ارائه در وبلاگ داشتید لطفا" به آدرس .ایمیل داده شده ارسال فرمایید تا با نام خود شما در وبلاگ ثبت کنیم. با سپاس از شما...
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